There are many different composting methods via which organic material can be converted to compost. The type of composting method that you decide you use will depend upon the quantom of waste that you generate and the ammount of land that you have avaliable. A list of different composting methods is listed below for your understanding:
Central Composting Facilities
Windrow Composting. This is one of the oldest and simplest methods of composting. A typical windrow system consists of long rows of organic material, about 1.8 to 2.1 meters high and 4 to 5 meters wide at the base. Actual dimensions vary and depend largely on the equipment available to place and manipulate the piles.
Aerated static pile composting. This method can be used to compost a wide variety of organic materials, including yard wastes and separated municipal waste. The materials are laid out in long piles similar to windrows. A layer of screened compost is often placed on top of the pile to control odor and provide insulation. A network of perforated piping is either placed at the bottom of the pile or embedded in the flooring below the pile. Air is introduced by blowers into each pile through the pipe network so that aerobic decomposition occurs. Airflow rates are controlled to maintain the temperature at the desired level. In modern facilities, all or most of the system is enclosed to allow better processing and odor control. Although the method needs more complex equipment than windrow composting, it does not require turning the material, it minimizes odors, and it provides better control of the process.
In-vessel composting. In this method, the materials to be composted are enclosed in a container or vessel. Vessels of various shapes are used, but they are generally of two basic types: plug flow or dynamic. In the former, the materials move through the vessel without agitation; in the later, the materials are agitated or mixed during the composting. Air and water are added to the vessels in a well-controlled manner. Typical in-vessel composting systems are shown schematically in Figure 5.6, and an actual system is shown in Figure 5.7. Detention (processing) times in in-vessel composters are about 1 to 2 weeks, followed by a 4- to 12-week curing period. In-vessel composters are gaining popularity because they offer good process and odor control, shorter composting time, and lower labor costs, and they can deal with food wastes. In particular, they can be set up in cities to service facilities such as hospitals or large office complexes.